A microbiota is the set of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, yeasts, fungi, viruses) living in a specific environment. This ecological community consists of commensal microorganisms present in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date.
In humans and animals, there are different microbiota (skin, vaginal, urinary, respiratory, ENT, intestinal…), whose composition differs from one another.
In its normal state, a microbiota is made up of microorganisms living in symbiosis with each other and with their host, characterized by a homeostasis dialogue influencing different physiological systems. In case of dysbiosis, this dialogue is disrupted, and can cause many pathologies.
This is why the human and animal microbiota is one of the focus of medical research in the 21st century. Indeed, acting on this dysbiosis is very promising and represents today a new medical discipline, both in terms of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases, as well as the generation of new pharmacological products from a microbiota. This research allows the discovery of new key biomarkers for the diagnosis of pathologies, and leads to a more personalized medicine. In addition, the discoveries are leading to the identification of different preventive or therapeutic strategies, via the modulation of microorganisms, the substances they produce and the microbiome as a whole. This involves modifying lifestyle habits, using prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics or synbiotics, fecal transplants, Live Biotherapeutic Products, or any other compound that preserves or rebalances the microflora… with the aim of preserving each person’s health capital.
The field of possibilities is very huge and many experiments are necessary to characterize these products and evaluate their effectiveness.